Cancer Applications: PAR-1 activates the innate immune system in human patients via intramuscular, intravenous or other routes of systemic administration, or via intratumoral administration; each of the above three activated cell populations kills cancer cells in a specific manner using distinct mechanisms. There is substantial data from studies which support the efficacy of PAR-1 on a variety of cancers including lung cancer, leukemia, lymphoma, breast cancer, glioblastoma and prostate cancer. 

Other Applications: PAR-1 activates the innate immune system in a manner which results in strong antibacterial and antiviral efficacy, and there is substantial animal or human data (depending on the disease) supporting the efficacy of PAR-1 against infections caused by a variety of different viruses (e.g., human papillomavirus, herpes simplex virus, parvovirus, cytomegalovirus) or bacteria (e.g., E. coli, salmonella, staphylococcus, chlamydia, mycoplasma, ureaplasma). PAR-1 can also act as a vaccine carrier which, when coupled to weakly immunogenic antigens, strongly increases their immunogenicity. In addition to the above described in vivo uses, PAR-1 can also be used as an ex vivo activator of innate immune cells (DCs etc.)